Visual IQ Test
It is the ability to mentally manipulate 3-Dimensional objects. It is also called Spatial Reasoning. This category of intelligence refers to the ability to think of an object in three dimensions and draw a correct decision about such object with restricted information. Individuals with high spatial ability can imagine what an object will look like when rotated, which can be applied to practical problem-solving situations or when making specific decisions.
The IQ score says a lot about a person, though the statement is not scientifically proven; some characteristics have been observed among individuals within each IQ scale. Not all characteristics mentioned will be present in an individual, but each person will tick three or more of the mentioned features.
Very gifted: is quick in understanding, thinks and talks fast, is curious, intrinsically motivated and likes solving problems – perfectionists.
Gifted: is an early reader, sensitive towards others’ feelings and curious; he/she possesses a high expectation of self and others, has large vocabulary repository, diversity of interest, is creative and inventive.
Above average: are highly adaptive, admit when they don’t know something, curious, open-minded, high self-control, sympathetic towards others, study a lot, very funny and prefer being alone.
Average: individuals are adaptive, very playful, easily make friends, extroverted, funny, creative and artistic.
Below average: are prone to emotional outburst, spend above their means, are highly dependent for basic needs, think they know it all, are always blaming others and self-centered.
Cognitively impaired: are conscientious, aggressive, close-minded and unable to receive criticisms. For them, there is difficulty learning new concept, though they argue with no end.
Race and IQ Score
Some scientists back the claim that some races have a higher IQ compared to people of the same age of other race, though several researches have shown that genetics plays a role in determining intelligence, but environmental factors also play a significant role. Dynamics that have been linked to the differences are socioeconomic status, testing bias, health and nutrition alongside minority status.
In a reaction to this, the American Psychology Association (APA) formed a special task force led by Psychologist Ulric Neisser to investigate the claim. The team found no genetic explanation for the test score differences between Black and Whites.
Nationality and IQ Score
Studies of National Cognitive Ability suggest that there are differences in IQ scores among different nations with average for different countries estimated. According to the research conducted by Richard Lynn and Tatu Vanhgnaan, Hong Kong had the highest average IQ of 108 while Equatorial Guinea had the lowest of 59. Average IQ for the UK is 100, Italy 102, the USA 98 and Nigeria 84.
Sex Differences and IQ Scores
There have been several urgings with regards to this statement over the years with some researchers backing the claim while others conflicting, as they believe there is no significant difference between the IQ for both sexes. Though there might be difference of performance in certain aspects of the IQ test as women are believed to perform better in the verbal and spatial reasoning, some have considered this disparity to be influenced by culture, experience and education.
The Flynn Effect
The author of the book “The Bell Curve”, James R. Flynn came up with the idea that there is a propensity for IQ to change over time. This is the Flynn Effect. This was noticed when there was an apparent increase in the intelligence of the general population evidenced by a steady increase in IQI scores, technology, increased access to education, more exposure, test bias, better health and nutrition, and were assumed to be the contributing factors.
Determinants of IQ
There have been a lot of arguments on what determines a person’s IQ. However, the two prominent factors are Genetics and Environment.
Genetics: Several proponents have maintained that genetics is the only factor that determines IQ level, but researches have shown it only contributes 55% to an individual’s intelligence. It has also been confirmed that genetics of intelligence is governed by a complex interaction between different genes and not controlled by a single gene.
Environment: Examples of environment are culture, education, peers, nutritional status, socio-economic background and so on. The remaining 45% of intelligence is said to be contributed by these factors.
It is vital to note the genes are conveyed based on the interaction between genetics and environment.